Mongol Conquest
Genghis Khan, Khubilai Khan and Marco Polo
The Mongol Horde
Mongol Icon
Mongols on the Steppe
Mongols on the Move
The Virtues of Continuous Conquest
The Mongol Conquests
Mongol Warrior on Horse
When a tribesman became the personal supporter of a leader, he swore his absolute obedience to him only during wartime. After a successful battle, the khan had first pick of captured women and horses, and his supporters then divided the remaining plunder. In peacetime, a personal supporter promised simply not to act counter to his leader’s interests. As a result, the khan had every reason to be at war, when he could command the obedience of his troops by distributing booty to them, and no incentive to be at peace, when his troops would not obey him. Only continuous conquest, coupled with a steady supply of booty, could hold such an army together. For a leader to stop moving was tantamount to disbanding his troops. (OE, 312)
Chinggis Khan Cartoon: "If Anyone Khan, Genghis Khan!"
Map of Contemporary MongoliaSometime around 1167, The Origins of Chinggis Khan reports, a son was born to a chieftain’s family living in the forests east of Lake Baikal in what is now the People’s Republic of Mongolia. His father’s personal supporters abandoned the nine-year-old Chinggis, his mother, and his siblings on his father’s death, and they were forced to live in the forest. Although it was initially a disadvantage to be fatherless, Chinggis began launching his own campaign to win followers. As he grew up he was able to resume contact with his father’s supporters. His father’s friend gave him his daughter in marriage, and she brought a gift of a coat of black sable. Chinggis then gave the fur coat to a sworn brother of his father’s, who promised, in the words of The Origin:
In Return for the coat of black sables
I shall collect for thee
Thy people which have separated themselves.
In return for the coat of black sables
I shall gather for thee
Thy people which have dispersed themselves.
(OE, 312-313)

Map of Mongol Tribes, c. 1200
Mongol Icon
Map of the Mongol Empire in 1207
Mongol Icon
Map of the Mongol Conquests
The Conquest of Europe
By 1215, the Mongols took all of north China from the Jin dynasty, leaving the Jurchen only a narrow band of land around the Huai River valley. ... After taking north China, the Mongols turned away from the rice paddies of South China to conquer the Eurasian steppe, the terrain with which they were most familiar. It took them only thirty years to cut a swath through the grasslands of Europe and Asia. By 1219 they had taken Russia and by 1222, all of north India. Chinggis’s death gave Europe a two-year respite, but he had secured the consent of his four sons concerning the succession. The conquests resumed when a khuriltai council acknowledge his son Ögödei (reigned 1229-1241) as the new khan in 1229. Georgia, Persia, and Armenia fell in 1231, and Kiev and Hungary followed in 1236. Finally the conquests ended in 1241 with Ögödei’s death. This plunged the Mongols into a succession dispute that was resolved only 1264 with the division of the empire into quadrants, one each for the descendants of Chinggis’s four sons. (OE, 313-314)
Map of the Mongol Empire in 1294
The Mongols took territory with breathtaking speed. Although the army numbered only one hundred thirty thousand, its impact was that of a much larger force. Each soldier, equipped with several horses, could ride for three or four days without tiring his mounts. Atop the riderless mounts sat dummy soldiers, who appeared to swell the ranks of the attackers. (OE, 314-315)
Mongol Icon
German knights of the Teutonic Order confront heavily-armoured Mongol horse-warriors at the Battle of Liegnitz, 1241
An Englishman’s Account
Matthew Paris (1200-1259)

Swarming like locusts over the face of the earth, they have brought terrible devastation to the eastern parts (of Europe), laying them waste with fire and carnage ... they have razed cities, cut down forests, overthrown fortresses, pulled up vines, destroyed gardens, killed townspeople and peasants. ...
The Mongol Horde
For they are inhuman and beastly, rather monsters than men, thirsting for and drinking blood, tearing and devouring the flesh of dogs and men, dressed in ox-hides, armed with plates of iron, short and stout, thickset, strong, invincible, indefatigable, their backs unprotected. ...
Mongols in Battle
They are without human laws, know no comforts, are more ferocious than lions or bears. ... And so they come with the swiftness of lightning to the confines of Christendom, ravaging and slaughtering, striking everyone with terror and incomparable horror. (OE, 315)
Mongol Conquest
It was in hopes of encouraging rapid surrender that the Mongols behaved so viciously. In 1221, after a son-in-law of Chinggis had died in the fighting outside the city of Herat in Afghanistan, the Mongols gave the order, as recounted by the Persian historian Juvaini (1226-1283), “that the town should be laid waste in such a manner that the site could be ploughed upon; and that in the exaction of vengeance not even cats and dogs should be left alive.” Only the four hundred craftsmen who were sent to the capital in Mongolia survived. Everyone else was killed, and the Mongols severed the victims’ heads from their bodies, forming separate piles for men, women, and children. They took every action possible to cultivate a reputation for senseless violence. ... A brilliant strategic device, terror as used by the Mongols created a climate of fear that enabled the Mongol armies to conquer new territory without having to fight for it. (OE, 316)
Why were the Mongols so ferocious?
Mongol Bow (page divider)
Was Matthew Paris correct when he likened them to animals who live without human laws, or is Valerie Hansen right when she characterizes their use of terror as a "brilliant strategic device"?
Mongol Bow (page divider)
Yelu Chucai and Qiu Chuji
And what about the influence of Yelu Chucai and Qiu Chuji?
The Unity of the Three Teachings: Laozi, Confucius and Buddhist
Chinese Kublai Khan Coin
Map of the Yuan Dynasty c. 1300
The watery terrain of south China proved a formidable obstacle to the Mongols’ fast-moving forces, accustomed as they were to the steppe. After the final defeat of the Jurchen armies and the fall of their capital in 1234, the Mongol armies began a sustained attack against south China. It would take forty years for the Mongols to defeat the last of the Southern Song armies. The ferocious armies and swift cavalry of the Mongols faced the much larger army and navy of the Chinese. Cut off from supplies of fresh horses, the Chinese never managed to adapt to the horse warfare of the Mongols, while the Mongols, incongruous as it seems for a nomadic people, managed to organize a navy capable of defeating the Chinese in less than a decade. (OE, 322)
Mongol Army Defeats the Southern Song in the Battle of Yamen in 1279
Although vastly outnumbered by the Chinese, the Mongols had proven themselves more skillful horsemen and better innovators. They had won the prize of south China, but they did not reckon with the difficulties of ruling a sedentary civilization, far different from their own tribal society. (OE, 324)
Chinese Kublai Khan Coin
The Court of Kublai Khan
Governing China
The [Mongol] tribesmen knew how to sack cities, collect plunder, and move on, yet they had no experience governing conquered territory. With China in their thrall, they had to develop a new strategy. Distrustful of the Chinese, the Mongols preferred to deal with the Turkic peoples of Central Asia — the Khitans, the Tanguts, and the Uighurs among others — who could speak both Mongolian and Chinese. They called these people the people of various categories, or semu people. ...
       Chinggis’s son, Ögödei, placed Yelü [Chucai (1189-1243)] in charge of taxation in 1229, and Yelü drew on his experiences as a Jin-dynasty official to structure the Mongols’ financial policies in north China. ... Yelü also tried to implement other traditional measures, like a census and the civil service examinations, but the Mongol administration lacked the manpower to enforce these measures. After 1235, when Yelü lost power at court, these attempts to govern in the Chinese style stopped. ... Only after the conquest of the south did the Mongols once again tackle the problem of governing China. Yelü had already identified the major differences between the Chinese and Mongolian administrations: taxation and government recruitment. Because the Mongols usually collected plunder once a city had fallen, the Chinese practice of annual, low-level taxes was new to them. So too was the Chinese practice of recruitment through the civil service examination.
(OE, 324-325)
Chinese Kublai Khan Coin
Mongol and Han Officials
Dual Government
Khubilai and his advisers followed the Liao precedent of dual government in that they envisioned separate societies — non-Chinese and Chinese — under Mongol rule. The Mongols divided the population of China into four groups: themselves, the people of various categories, the northern Chinese, and the southern Chinese. ... Suspicious of the Chinese, they forbade intermarriage between Mongols and Chinese, although much mixing actually occurred.
       Numbering only two million during the course of the Yuan dynasty, the Mongols lacked enough men to serve as officials. They hoped to appoint a Mongol and a Chinese to all high offices, with the two men to govern in tandem, but when no qualified Mongol was available, they appointed a western or Central Asian instead.
(OE, 325-327)
The Mongols’ decision to suspend the civil service examinations had the greatest effect on educated Chinese families, who had devoted themselves to placing at least one son in the bureaucracy. In one stroke, the Mongols cut off the primary route to office. Chinese families adjusted quickly. Some accepted classification into the category of Confucian households whose job it was to teach in local schools, although teaching did not offer the same rewards it had in former periods when so many boys studied for the civil service examinations. Others obtained positions as clerks in the government offices where they could serve two thirty-month terms as county clerks, and then three successive terms as a clerk to a subprefect. Under the Mongol regulations, the same man could serve twelve and a half years and continue to be a clerk. The long service required and the low salary one could earn, however, discouraged many from this route. (OE, 327)
Chinese Kublai Khan Coin
Zhu Xi Orthodoxy as the Foundation for the Exam System
Reinstating the Exam System
A long period of instability followed Khubilai’s death in 1294, even in the absence of war or rebellion. The legacy of tanistry meant the Mongol royal clan had no orderly means of determining the succession. From 1294-1333, nine emperors ruled, but only one, Emperor Ayurbarwada (reigned 1313-1320), succeeded in naming his successor. Ayurbarwada’s reign offered a brief respite from the infighting, which resumed after his son’s death in 1323. The other eight emperors were overthrown, with two killed. All nine emperors encountered severe financial problems. ...
Ayurbarwada, the Renzong EmperorAs a child, the emperor Ayurbarwada had studied with Confucian tutors, who instilled in him the love of traditional Chinese learning. One of his first acts on taking office was to reinstate the civil service examinations. ... In 1315 when the examinations were held, the Mongols and Central Asians sat for a different examination than did the Chinese. The peoples of various categories were required to answer detailed questions on Zhu Xi’s editions of the The Four Books: The Great Learning and The Mean (two individual chapters Zhu Xi had taken from The Book of Rites) as well as The Analects and Mencius. They also had to write a five-hundred character essay on a contemporary issue. Theirs was a much more truncated syllabus than scholars in previous dynasties had been required to master, and it was also a much less demanding examination than that for the Chinese. The Chinese had to write detailed short essays three-hundred characters long about Zhu’s commentaries to The Four Books. In addition, they had to select one of the longer classics from among The Book of Songs, The Book of Documents, The Book of Rites, and The Spring and Autumn Annals, on which they wrote a five-hundred-character essay. Finally they had to draft a one-thousand-character essay on a modern problem of governance. ...
Even after the reestablishment of the examinations, most offices continued to be filled by appointments or on the basis of heredity. The Chinese taking the exams faced much more difficult odds than the Mongols and the Central Asians who did so. The regulations specified that half the successful candidates (fifty men) would be Mongols or Central Asian; the remaining fifty would be Chinese. But fifty successful candidates were drawn from a Chinese population of 85 million, and fifty from the Mongol and Central Asian population of some two million. ... By 1333 only 2 percent of the officials serving the Mongols, some 550 men, had received their positions after passing the civil service examinations. ... [T]his figure shows that most Chinese scholars could not hope to pass the examinations in the Yuan dynasty. Although very few Chinese passed the examinations, many served in the Mongol administration, often in a lower capacity as a clerk, but sometimes in higher appointed positions. (OE, 331-333)
Chinese Marco Polo Coin
Marco Polo Meeting Khubilai Khan
In 1253 William of Rubruck set off for the capital of the Mongols at Kara Khorum to convert them to Christianity. ... William’s account carefully distinguishes between what he himself saw, what others told him, and what was hearsay. The reader of his account feels the sting of the biting Christmas wind that swept across the steppe and tastes the frustration of trying to convert the Mongols to Roman Catholicism. No one can doubt that William went where he said he did and saw what he records. ... Rubruck’s account hardly circulated during his lifetime, and very few people knew about it. (OE, 317-318)
16th Century Portrait of Marco Polo
Early 14th Century Paiza TabletIn contrast, Marco Polo’s account, which was written forty years after Rubruck’s, was one of the most widely read books in Europe, circulating first in manuscripts that were hand-copied and then, after Gutenberg’s discovery of movable type (at least four centuries after the Chinese ...), as an early published book. While some scholars argue furiously that Travels offers better information about the places Polo visited than any other book, others, equally certain, counter that the book contains many factual errors. In fact, both scholarly camps can find evidence to support their differing views: some parts of Polo’s account are accurate, others are not.
       Travels does make some false claims. Polo asserts that he built the catapults that made it possible for the Mongols to take Xiangyang in 1268 — two years before his arrival in China. He also says that he served as governor of Yangzhou, but the complete Chinese-language lists of governors do not give his name. Still, other indications support Polo’s claim to have visited China. It is certainly the case that the Polos traveled outside of Italy. By 1264, Italian merchants had established an outpost in the city of Tabriz in Iran. Marco’s father and uncle left Constantinople in 1261 and returned to Venice in 1271. They traveled again in 1271, this time with Marco, and returned to Venice only in 1295, on a ship with a Chinese princess who was to be married to a Middle Eastern king. Polo’s description of their journey tallies with Chinese accounts, which do not, however, explicitly mention the Polos by name. Moreover, when Polo died, his will listed his possessions, one of which was a paiza tablet of authority, a travel pass that allowed the bearer to travel throughout the Mongol empire as the khan’s representative. Polo must have received the pass from the Mongol ruler. (OE, 318-319)
Map of Marco Polo's Travels: 1271-1295
The scholars who argue for the reliability of Polo’s book also have persuasive evidence. Polo occasionally relates kernels of important information. One scholar has recently shown that Polo’s description of Chinese paper money is the most detailed account in any language: it explains how the Chinese made, employed, and replaced the notes. Marco reports practices with which people in Europe could not have been familiar: a spirit medium who specializes in finding lost or stolen goods or the Chinese custom of equipping the dead with “horses and slaves, male and female, and camels and cloth of gold in great abundance — all made of paper!” (OE, 321)
Marco Polo wrote his account in prison during 1298 and 1299, assisted by Rusticello de Pisa, who specialized in romances, and who, like many modern ghostwriters, felt no compunction about embellishing the truth to enhance the readability of his account. Rusticello simply lifted Khubilai’s welcome to Marco from his own version of an Arthurian legend recounting when Tristan first goes to court. Further undercutting his credibility, Polo’s account is repetitive. In almost every city in China he records, “The inhabitants are idolators and burn their dead. They are subject to the Great Khan and use paper money,” or some variation of this formula. (OE, 319)
Marco Polo in Tartar (Mongolian) GarbHowever distorted parts of Travels may be, the book testifies to the cultural brilliance of China under the Mongols, especially in comparison to the Europe of Polo’s time. William of Rubruck found Karakorum sorely lacking, but Polo sees the Southern Song capital of Hangzhou (which he calls Kinsai) as “without doubt the finest and most splendid city in the world.” It was a city of many bridges and waterways, with markets everywhere. Polo’s description captures life in the Chinese capital, complete with numerous urban amenities like hospitals, fire brigades, pleasure boats, paved roads, public baths, and stone houses. His book, with its vivid description of China’s riches, became a best seller for all times, a book so well known that Christopher Columbus carried it with him on his voyages to the New World. In contrast, William of Rubruck’s scrupulously accurate and much more informative account languished largely unread. (OE, 321-322)
Portrait of Kublai KhanThe great lord or lords, called Qubilai Khan, looks like this: he is of good size, neither small nor big, but of medium height. He is pleasingly fleshy; all his members are very well shaped. His face is white and red as a rose; his eyes black and beautiful; his nose well made and just right.
       He has four wives — all of whom he considers legitimate wives. The oldest son he has from these four wives ought by right to be lord of the empire when the Great Khan dies. They are called empresses and each is called by her name; each of these ladies has a court of her own — none with fewer than 300 damsels, very beautiful and comely; they have many squires and many other men and women, such that each of these ladies has a good 10,000 people in her court. And every time he wishes to lie with one of these four wives, he has her come to his chamber and sometimes he goes to his wife’s chamber.
       He also has many mistresses [amies] and ... every three days and three nights, 6 of these damsels [daimeselles] tend to whatever the lord needs, both in his chamber and in his bed, and the Great Khan does with them what he will. At the end of three days and three nights, another 6 damsels arrive; thus it continues the whole year-round: every three days and three nights, one group of 6 damsels is changed for another 6.
(The Description of the World, 72-73)
Yuan Dynasty Paper Money with Woodblock Print
Now know that he has money [monoie] made in the way I will tell you: he takes tree bark — from mulberry tress, whose fronds are eaten by the worms who make silk — and the inner bark between the bark and wood of the tree; and from this inner bark, he has notes [charte] made like paper [papir]; these are all black. ... All these notes are stamped with the seal of the great lord; he has them made in such a great quantity that he could buy all the treasure in the world. ... I also tell you that all the people and populated regions under his rule willingly take these notes in payment, because with them they’ll go and make all their payments [for] merchandise, pearls, precious stones, gold, and silver. ... I also tell you another thing that is good to say: for when you’ve kept these notes for so long that they are torn and damaged, you take them to the mint where they are exchanged for new and fresh ones, so truly that he leaves [only] three percent. ... I will also tell you a greater thing: that all the lords of the world do not have as many riches as does the great lord alone. (The Description of the World, 86-88)
Hangzhou Style Bridge in Zhujiazhao Ancient Town
When one leaves the city of Chang’an ... one finds the very, very noble city called Quinsai [i.e. Hangzhou], which in French means the “City of Heaven.” Since we have come there, we will recount all its great nobility to you, for it is good to tell: for this is without a doubt the best and the noblest city in the world. ... First of all, it is said that the city of Quinsai was about 100 miles around and had 12,000 stone bridges; as for each of these bridges, or for the majority, a great ship could easily pass beneath its arch; for the others, a smaller ship could. It’s no marvel that there are so many bridges, for I tell you that this city is all on the water and is surrounded by water, and therefore it is fitting that there be many bridges for getting around the whole city. ...
Marco Polo's Hangzhou
I also tell you that the great men and their wives (all the craft station leaders I told you about) never do anything by hand; but they remain as delicately and as purely as if they were kings; and their ladies are also very delicate and angelic things. ... There are many beautiful houses in the city; throughout the city there are here and there, large stone towers where the people carry all their things when the city catches fire; and know that the city catches fire very often, for there are several houses of wood. ... The Great Khan has this city guarded very carefully by a very great number of people, for it is the capital and seat of the entire province of Mangi, and because there is great treasure in this city, and the Great Khan gets great income from it — so great that whoever hears it can hardly believe it; and the great lord also has it guarded so well and by so many people for fear that it might revolt.
       Know in truth that in this city, all the roads are paved with stones and baked brick; likewise, all the roads and causeways of the entire province of Mangi are paved so that one can travel them very cleanly, both by horse and on foot. I also tell you that in this city there are a good 3,000 baths — that is, bathhouses — where men take great pleasure in going several times a month, for they keep their bodies very clean. I tell you that these are the most beautiful, best, and biggest baths in the world: for I tell you they are so big that 100 men or 100 women could bathe there at a time. (The Description of the World, 133-135)
Chinese Kublai Khan Coin
Map of the Bubonic Plague Traveling from Yuan China to Europe
The Fall of the Mongols
In 1331 an epidemic in the province of Hubei wiped out nine-tenths of the population. Two years later, in both the Yangzi and Huai River valleys, some 400,000 people perished. The death toll in China under the Mongol dynasty was high. Scholars estimate the combined population of north and south China to have been between 110 million and 120 million at the time of the Mongol invasion. In 1290 the Mongol census takers counted fewer than 59 million people. ...
Flea Carrying the Bubonic PlagueScholars have traditionally thought the Mongol invasions caused the drop, but the American world historian, William H. McNeill, offered another explanation for the massive losses. The shift of trade routes away from the desert silk routes to the grasslands facilitated the spread of the plague bacillus. As the Mongols traveled overland, infected fleas rode in the Mongols’ grain bags attached to their saddles. The plague, which originated in the lowlands near the Himalayas, arrived in China in 1331 and simmered there until the 1350s when more epidemics ravaged the nation. In some areas, two-thirds of the people were reported to have died. ... The massive deaths resulting from the plague led to drastic revenue shortfalls for the central government. (OE, 339-340)
Great disorder marked the last years of the Mongol reign. No place was safe from the rebels. ... Zhu Yuanzhang (1328-1398) was a peasant who joined the rebels in the 1350s. With each victory against the government troops, he rose up in the ranks of the rebels’ army and emerged the triumphant founder of a new dynasty in 1368. The era of the Mongol rule had come to a close. (The Open Empire, 342-3)

The Ming Dynasty